Bee on flower

Nature’s Green Shoots published

Extending protected areas (PA) to 30% of land and seas is the target in the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework that has received most attention. This paper, led by Almut, presents the ‘Green Shoots’ framework to help assess the complex interactions between biodiversity and other sustainability objectives. Critically, the focus on area coverage obscures that considering PA effectiveness is equally important. Expanding PAs can create synergies or trade-offs with food and climate mitigation depending on how PAs are implemented. Given limited progress on PA effectiveness in the past, serious concerns exist about whether the anticipated benefits for biodiversity and other sustainability objectives will be realized.


Making protected areas effective for biodiversity, climate and food. Global Change Biology, doi:

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